The paternity test conducted to accurately determine the biological father of a child can be done either after the birth or when the child is still in her mother’s womb. The paternity test before birth is sometimes obligatory for unmarried couples since there are specific laws regarding this. Currently, the non-invasive paternity test is considered the safest way to determine paternity while the woman is still pregnant. The non-invasive paternity test is completely safe and it is done by drawing blood samples from the mother for analyzing the fetal DNA. When compared to the invasive methods, amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) that carry the risk of miscarriage or causing harm to the fetus, non-invasive methods are completely free of risk.
The entire cost of this non-invasive paternity test before birth is within acceptable limits requires lesser time and the operation is uncomplicated. Here again, the earlier method was expensive and time-consuming. This test is initiated during the first trimester itself. Gradually, as the fetus grows, the cells of the fetus are witnessed in the amniotic fluid of the mother and also in her blood. The non-invasive test separates these cells from her mother. Consequently, the DNA present in the cells is matched with the father’s DNA for concluding the paternity results. Since the DNA being tested in this method is directly withdrawn from the mother, the diagnosis is always accurate. Even if the woman previously had a miscarriage or pregnancies, it does not have any effect on this test.
The invasive methods for the paternity test before birth are still operational. Here, the doctor will commence the amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) test. A large needle is inserted into the abdomen for the purpose of testing the amniotic fluid. This test can also be carried out during the first trimester, and a re-test is done during the second trimester. As already mentioned, this procedure does carry a significant amount of risk for both the mother and child.